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Advanced healthcare materials: engineered gold nanomaterials for macrophage mediated inflammation and tumor therapy

wallpapers News 2020-08-29

macrophages (m ϕ) are derived from monocytes exist in almost all tissues in the form of microglia Kupffer cells osteoclasts. Macrophages play an important role in human immune defense. As an important part of the innate immune system macrophages recognize cell debris microorganisms cancer cells through their pattern recognition receptors phagocytize digest them. In addition macrophages also act as antigen presenting cells to recruit activate other immune cells to initiate adaptive immune response. Macrophages can be divided into two phenotypes M1 M2. Macrophages secreting pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor - α (TNF - α) interleukin-6 (IL-6) IL-12 are called M1 macrophages while macrophages producing anti-inflammatory cytokines such as transforming growth factor-B (TGF-b) IL-10 are called M2 macrophages. The M1 or M2 polarization of macrophages is in a highly dynamic process. Under physiological or pathological conditions the polarization state of macrophages changes accordingly. The imbalance of M1 / m2 polarization is closely related to the occurrence development of some inflammation related diseases tumors.

Ding Ya research group of School of pharmacy China Pharmaceutical University focuses on gold nanomaterials which are widely studied at present discusses the related research of various nanostructures devices constructed by gold nanomaterials in macrophage imaging performance regulation. Gold nanomaterials have been constructed into various structures endowed with various functions due to their advantages of high specific surface area flexible surface modification strong cell tissue penetration which has become an excellent platform for diagnosis treatment in biomedical field. As an exogenous substance gold nanomaterials are recognized cleared by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) with macrophages as the main body showing the advantage of natural targeting of macrophages. Through the fine design of the size shape surface modification of gold nanomaterials the interaction between macrophages gold nanomaterials can be specifically regulated for macrophage related imaging disease treatment.

in biological imaging gold nanomaterials are often used in fluorescence imaging computed tomography (CT) imaging photoacoustic imaging (PAI). In the study of macrophage related imaging in vivo gold nanomaterials are mainly used for (1) labeling macrophages as probes to track the migration accumulation of macrophages in vivo; (2) imaging diagnosis of related diseases using gold nanomaterials targeting macrophages. Gold nanomaterials play the roles of (1) inhibiting the recruitment of macrophages to lesions (2) interfering with the activity of macrophages (2) changing the polarization direction of macrophages. In addition specially designed gold nanomaterials can deliver macrophage modulators or use their own photothermal or photoacoustic properties to play a great potential in the treatment of infection RA as other inflammatory diseases tumors. Due to the high complexity interaction of the immune system

there is still a huge space for research on the mechanism of regulating macrophages through gold nanomaterials the whole immune system through macrophages.

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