Differences between Early Strength Agents and Accelerating Agents
Analysts at JPMorgan recommended selling or "underweight" emerging market local currency sovereign debt because of the global impact of the Ukraine-Russia crisis.
JPMorgan estimated that fixed-income assets in emerging markets have lost 6-9 percent of their value since Russia invaded Ukraine a month ago, with nervousness about the war and its impact on global energy and food prices adding to existing pressures.
Some leading emerging market central banks are signaling that interest rates now need to rise faster than previously expected, which fuels fears of "stagflation". Stagflation means when high inflation and higher interest rates undermine economic growth.
With both the U.S. Federal Reserve and emerging market central banks raising interest rates, JPMorgan also said it made sense to "underweight" emerging market assets by taking advantage of the recent pullback in local currency bond yields relative to TREASURIES.
JPMorgan said major metals exporters such as South Africa, Chile, and Peru could still do well, but warned that emerging market fixed income assets now faced a more "stagflationary" trajectory.
The markets and prices of many commodities, metals, chemicals like the early strength agent still face uncertainty.
Accelerating agent is to point to the admixture that can make concrete condenses quickly after concrete hardening.
Early strength agent refers to the admixture which can improve the early strength of concrete and has no significant effect on the late strength.
The main types of accelerating agent:
alkali earth metal carbonate and alkali earth metal hydroxide, silicate alkali (sodium silicate) sodium silicate, potassium silicate accelerating agent, sodium aluminate, potassium aluminate accelerating agent, alkali free liquid accelerating agent.
Early strength agents can be divided into:
strong electrolyte inorganic salts, water-soluble organic compounds, organic and inorganic compound early strength agents according to their chemical composition.
The main ingredient of accelerating agent is aluminum oxide clinker (namely bauxite, soda, quicklime according to the proportion of the clinker fired) by grinding and made.
Early strength agent in addition to chlorine salt and sulfate nitrite, chromate and other organic compounds such as triethanolamine, calcium formate, urea and so on.
Accelerating agent dosage accounts for only 4% ~ 6% of cement dosage in concrete, but can make concrete in 5min initial coagulation, 10min final coagulation. In order to achieve the purpose of rush repair or fast condensation of concrete in the tunnel. It is an indispensable additive in shotcrete construction method. Their function is to speed up the hydration and hardening of cement, forming sufficient strength in a very short period of time to ensure the requirements of special construction.
Early strength agent does not contain chloride ion, no corrosion of steel bar, applicable to all civil and industrial buildings and prestressed reinforced concrete members, mortar and so on. It is most suitable for construction under low temperature in early winter and early spring. Used in Portland cement, slag cement is particularly significant in strengthening and modifying.
Accelerating agent should not be added while material is mixed, because stones, sand contains a lot of water, accelerating agent in a short time of water absorption in the non-spraying decomposition of its rapid setting components, affecting the setting time, reducing the strength of concrete, it will lead to the adverse effect of spraying concrete. Before use, the cement used in the project should be tested, and the dosage can be used in large quantities.
Early strength agent dosage is 3-6% of cement. In order to keep the quality of concrete mixed with this agent uniform, mixing time to extend 1-2 minutes. Concrete mixed with early strength agent cannot use orthopedic active minerals (such as opal). If problems such as damp agglomerate arise, the agent must be crushed or weathered, and its performance will be unchanged.
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New Delhi: India is seeking to increase its purchases of crude oil from Brazil, the country's oil minister said recently after meeting his Brazilian counterpart.
India is the world's third-largest importer and consumer of crude oil. Brazil currently supplies only a fraction of India's crude oil imports.
India's state-owned companies Bharat Petroleum Corp and Oil and Natural Gas Corp have invested in oil and gas exploration in Brazil.
India, which imports about 84% of its crude oil needs, is reducing its import bill by increasing biofuel use, among other things.
India's state-owned fuel retailers are increasing ethanol storage capacity by 51 percent and the country plans to double the biofuel blend in petrol to 20 percent by 2025.
India and Brazil are currently cooperating on biofuels and ethanol.
The prices of many commodities like the early strength agent are expected to increase in the future.