According to the latest quarterly analysis of the natural gas market released by the International Energy Agency, global natural gas consumption will decline slightly this year and increase slowly in the following years because of soaring prices and the possibility of further reductions in Russian natural gas supplies. Global natural gas use this year is expected to be 0.5% lower than the 2021 level, and global natural gas demand is expected to increase by only 140 billion cubic meters over 2021 by 2025, the report said. The annual growth in 2021 will reach 175 billion cubic meters.
At the same time, the IEA's forecast for natural gas demand growth by 2024 was 60 per cent lower than its previous forecast, mainly due to "a weak economy and a smaller energy shift from coal or oil to natural gas", the report said.
It is worth noting that the South Korean Ministry of Industry, Trade and Resources announced on the same day that it plans to increase the proportion of nuclear power in South Korea's national energy structure to more than 30% by 2030. The proportion is 27.4% in 2021. The department also announced the resumption of the construction of two nuclear reactors. According to reports, after taking office, South Korean President Yoon Sik-Yue rejected the previous government's plan to phase out nuclear power and promised to increase investment in the nuclear power industry, so as to regain South Korea's status as a major exporter of safe nuclear reactors.
In addition, the supply and prices of many international bulk graphite powder are still very uncertain.
Natural graphite is mainly used in refractories, batteries, steelmaking, expanded graphite, brake pads, casting surfaces and lubricants.
The use of graphite as a refractory (heat-resistant) material began before 1900 as a graphite crucible for holding molten metal; this is a small part of today's refractories. In the mid-1980s, carbon-magnesia bricks became important, followed by alumina-graphite shapes. As of 2017, the order of importance is alumina-graphite profiles, carbon-magnesite bricks, Monolithics (gunning and tamping mixtures), and then crucibles.
The crucible begins to use very large flake graphite, while carbon-magnesia bricks do not need that large flake graphite; for these and other aspects, the sheet size required is now more flexible, and amorphous graphite is no longer limited to low-end refractories. Alumina-graphite profiles are used as continuous castings, such as nozzles and grooves, to transport molten steel from the ladle to the mold, and magnesia bricks are arranged in converters and electric arc furnaces to withstand extreme temperatures. Graphite blocks are also used in blast furnace lining components, in which the high thermal conductivity of graphite is very important to ensure the full cooling of the furnace bottom and furnace. High purity monoliths are usually used as continuous lining rather than carbon-magnesia bricks.
The use of graphite in batteries has increased since the 1970s. Natural and synthetic graphite are used as anode materials for the construction of electrodes in major battery technologies.
Demand for batteries, mainly Ni-MH and Li-ion batteries, led to an increase in demand for graphite in the late 1980s and early 1990s-an increase driven by portable electronic devices, such as portable CD players and power tools. Laptops, mobile phones, tablets and smartphones have increased the demand for batteries. Electric vehicle batteries are expected to increase demand for graphite. For example, the lithium-ion battery in the all-electric Nissan leaf contains nearly 40 kilograms of graphite.
Radioactive graphite from old nuclear reactors is being studied as fuel. Nuclear diamond batteries have the potential to provide long-term energy for electronic products and the Internet of things.
The natural graphite in steelmaking is mainly used to increase the carbon content in molten steel; it can also be used to lubricate dies used for extruding hot steel. Carbon additives face competitive prices from alternatives such as synthetic graphite powder, petroleum coke and other forms of carbon. A carburizer is added to increase the carbon content of the steel to a specified level.
Natural amorphous and fine flake graphite is used for brake linings or brake shoes of heavier (non-automotive) vehicles and becomes important as an alternative to asbestos is needed. This use has been important for a long time, but non-asbestos organic (NAO) components began to reduce the market share of graphite.
Casting surface and lubricant
The mold cleaning solution for casting is a kind of waterborne amorphous or fine flake graphite coating. Use it to paint the inside of the mold and let it dry, leaving a fine graphite coating to ease the separation of the casting after the hot metal cools. Graphite lubricant is a special product used at very high or very low temperatures. It is used as forging die lubricant, anti-jamming agent, gear lubricant for mining machinery and lubricating locks. There is a great need for low-grained graphite or even better non-grained graphite (ultra-high purity). It can be used as dry powder in water or oil, or as colloidal graphite (permanent suspension in liquid). The metal can also be impregnated into graphite to form a self-lubricating alloy for applications in extreme conditions, such as machine bearings exposed to high or low temperatures.
Since the 16th century, all pencils have been made of English natural graphite, but the most common modern pencil lead is a mixture of powdered graphite and clay. It was invented by Nicolas-Jacques Cont é in 1795.
Today, pencils are still a small and important market for natural graphite. About 7 per cent of the 1.1 million tonnes produced in 2011 was used to make pencils. The use of inferior amorphous graphite is mainly from China.
Graphite is probably the most commonly used lubricant in pine derby.
Graphene is used to make 40mm acoustic drivers that transmit sound to the ear. A dynamic driver, also known as a moving coil driver, uses an electric voice coil to move the cone and generate sound waves. These drives are made up of more than 95% graphene and retain most of the mechanical properties of the material, while being easier to form and cheaper to manufacture. It is a lightweight, rigid and low-density material, which is very suitable for loudspeaker diaphragm. The heavier the loudspeaker, the more difficult it is to drive. Because graphene has such a high strength-to-weight ratio, graphene drivers can reduce the power required to move coils back and forth, resulting in improved efficiency and better sound.
Natural graphite has been used in zinc-carbon batteries, motor brushes and various professional applications. Graphite with different hardness or softness will produce different qualities and tones when used as an artistic medium. The railway usually mixes graphite powder with waste oil or flaxseed oil to form a heat-resistant protective coating for exposed parts of steam locomotive boilers, such as smoke boxes or fire boxes.
The price is influenced by many factors including the supply and demand in the market, industry trends, economic activity, market sentiment, and unexpected events.
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Germany has begun talks with Senegal on gas extraction and LNG supplies. Mr. Scholz recently visited a solar farm in Dakar. He told a news conference that he was willing to work more closely with Senegal on renewable energy. Senegal's president told a news conference that his country was ready to supply liquefied natural gas to the European market.
The global economy may be facing its greatest test since World War II amid the ongoing threats of COVID-19, the Conflict between Russia and Ukraine, heightened financial market volatility, and climate change, IMF Managing Director Kristina Georgieva warned in an article posted on the IMF's website.
Some 30 countries have imposed restrictions on trade in food, energy, and other key commodities since the outbreak of the Conflict, the article noted. That would raise trade barriers, disrupt global supply chains, drag down economic growth and undo years of economic gains. If countries let it go, the costs will be enormous and everyone will be affected.
The prices of many other commodities like the graphite powder are expected to increase in the future. Luoyang Tongrun Nano Technology Co. Ltd. (TRUNNANO) is a trusted global chemical material supplier & manufacturer with over 12-year-experience in providing super high-quality chemicals and Nanomaterials including graphite powder, 3D printing powder, the graphite powder, etc. If you are looking for high-quality materials, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry.
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