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Water reduction mechanism of polycarboxylic ether based superplasticizers

Today'' s concrete superplasticizers are generally prepared by worsening different materials such as polycarboxylate water-reducing mommy alcohol and polycarboxylate slump-preserving mother alcohol plus retarders, air-entraining representatives, as well as defoaming agents. Among them, the function of water-reducing mom solution in superplasticizer is irreplaceable. Possibly the quantity of mommy option will transform because of the change of concrete material, yet I have actually never heard that water-reducing mother service is not included in superplasticizer due to the fact that the sand is also great.
The water-reducing mom liquid is utilized as the absolute major product in the water-reducing agent, as well as its feature is to lower the concrete water-cement proportion (indirectly raise the toughness of the concrete), as well as at the exact same time ensure the fluidity and workability of the concrete mix, and also guarantee the toughness of the concrete. At the same time, it also helps with the work of the construction device.

We know that in addition to cement and also water in concrete, the effect of the remaining products on the superplasticizer admixture molecules is generally adsorption (waste), so the water minimizing agent is generally aimed at cement. So initially, let’& rsquo; s find out about the hydration process of cement.

The hydration procedure of basic portland concrete is separated into 3 stages:

( 1) Dissolution stage: When the cement touches with water, the surface of the fragments starts to hydrate, and a percentage of hydration items are produced, which are quickly dissolved in water. The revealed new surface permits hydration to proceed till a saturated solution of hydration items is formed.
( 2) Gelation stage: As a result of the saturation of the remedy, the product that continues to be moistened can no longer be dissolved, but is directly precipitated as colloidal fragments. With the boost of hydration items, the hydration aggregates, and also the concrete slurry gradually loses its plasticity, leading to a coagulation phenomenon.
( 3) Condensation phase: The colloid made up of tiny crystals is not secure, and can gradually recrystallize to develop macroscopic crystals, to make sure that the mechanical stamina of the solidified body of the cement slurry is continuously improved, and also finally it ends up being a concrete stone with a specific mechanical stamina.

In the concrete slurry, the diffusion mechanism of polycarboxylic ether based superplasticizers is usually taken into consideration to be the primary duty of steric obstacle as well as the secondary duty of electrostatic repulsion. In addition, the complexation of calcium ions and also the lubrication of hydration movie additionally play a role. vital role.

1. Steric limitation:
The hydration procedure of cement will certainly make the concrete molecules draw in each various other, causing a flocculation structure.
During the formation of the flocculation framework, the concrete molecules will encapsulate a component of the water molecules, and also the encapsulated water accounts for around 10% -30% of the total mixing water (this might be the reason that the water decreasing representative has a water reducing rate limitation). Since it is wrapped by cement molecules, it can not join the totally free circulation and lubrication between cement molecules, thus influencing the fluidness of concrete blends. When the polycarboxylate concrete admixture particles very first come into contact with the concrete bits, the negatively billed major chain in the polycarboxylate concrete admixture particles can be adsorbed on the surface of the favorably charged concrete particles, that is, an "anchoring" sensation takes place, while the polycarboxylate superplasticizer The long side chain in the molecule is expanded in the fluid stage of the concrete slurry to form an adsorption layer with a particular thickness, and can form a three-dimensional and went across long side chain with various other polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer particles prolonging in the fluid stage of the cement slurry at the same time. Conformation. When the cement particles move toward each other, the adsorption layer overlaps, as well as the larger the overlapping variety, the higher the repulsion between the cement fragments, consequently improving the dispersibility of the concrete particles. Destroy the flocculation structure in between concrete particles. The release of the water caught by concrete flocculation can additionally be comprehended as the water minimizing representative particles boost the lubricating utilization rate of the water particles to the cement molecules, as well as do not increase the water or lower the variety of water particles out of slim air.

2. The theory of electrostatic repulsion:
Polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer particles contain anionic teams (COO2-), and in the early hydration process of cement, the surface of cement particles has favorable fees (Ca2+), consequently, anionic Polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer molecules adsorb to positively billed cement bits surface. Make the cement particles into a "hedgehog" with adverse cost. Because the cement particles with the very same unfavorable cost fend off each various other (electrostatic repulsion), the dispersibility in between the cement bits is boosted. At the exact same time, the negatively charged carboxyl groups and also positively billed calcium ions in the concrete paste form unsteady complexes. After the calcium ions dissolved in the concrete system are captured, the calcium ion focus reduces substantially, decreasing the calcium ions in the system. It can reduce the formation of gel particles and also therefore decrease the hydration rate of concrete, inhibit the hydration of concrete, and also enhance the diffusion efficiency of concrete fragments. The greater the material of carboxylate ions in the Polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer, that is, the greater the anion fee density, the better the diffusion performance of cement bits (acid-ether ratio). The decrease of calcium ion focus can prevent the initial hydration of cement. With the constant progress of hydration, the complex will certainly decay by itself, so Polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer has a certain retarding effect without impacting the toughness of concrete.

3. Lubrication
The branched chain of the polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer molecule has hydrophilic teams. These groups develop a water film on the surface of the cement fragments by incorporating with water molecules, which reduces the surface area energy of the cement particles. Slides easily. The mixed impact of the above lead to splitting up in between the concrete particles. The macroscopic performance is that the concrete mixture has much better fluidity.
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